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Zika Virus on a Spreading Spree: what we now know that was unknown in the 1950’s | Virology Journal | Full Text

Zika Virus on a Spreading Spree: what we now know that was unknown in the 1950’s | Virology Journal | Full Text

Biomed Central



Virology Journal

Zika Virus on a Spreading Spree: what we now know that was unknown in the 1950’s

Virology Journal201613:165
DOI: 10.1186/s12985-016-0623-2
Received: 22 August 2016
Accepted: 26 September 2016
Published: 6 October 2016

Abstract

Zika virus (ZIKV) is a mosquito-borne flavivirus that is transmitted through the bite of Aedes spp mosquitoes and less predominantly, through sexual intercourse. Prior to 2007, ZIKV was associated with only sporadic human infections with minimal or no clinical manifestations. Recently the virus has caused disease outbreaks from the Pacific Islands, the Americas, and off the coast of West Africa with approximately 1.62 million people suspected to be infected in more than 60 countries around the globe. The recent ZIKV outbreaks have been associated with guillain-barré syndrome, congenital syndrome (microcephaly, congenital central nervous system anomalies), miscarriages, and even death. This review summarizes the path of ZIKV outbreak within the last decade, highlights three novel modes of ZIKV transmission associated with recent outbreaks, and points to the hallmarks of congenital syndrome. The review concludes with a summary of challenges facing ZIKV research especially the control of ZIKV infection in the wake of most recent data showing that anti-dengue virus antibodies enhance ZIKV infection.

Keywords

Zika virus Sexual transmission Neurological development Microcephaly Antibody-dependent enhancement

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